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Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe in the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the center of the Balkan Peninsula. with Romania, in the east with Bulgaria, in the south with Northern Macedonia, in the southwest with Albania and Montenegro, and in the west with Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska entity).


The northern part of the Republic is occupied by the plain and in the southern regions there are hills and mountains. There are over 30 mountain peaks above 2,000 m above sea level, and the highest peak is Đeravica (on Prokletije) with a height of 2,656 m. The mountain relief of Serbia explains the appearance of many canyons, gorges and caves (Resavska cave, Ceremosnja, Risovaca). The lowest point is on the border with Romania and Bulgaria, at the confluence of the Timok and the Danube, at 28-36 m above sea level. Deliblato Sands is a geomorphological and ecological-biogeographical phenomenon not only of the Pannonian Plain, but of the whole of Europe..


Serbia is located on the land mass of the Balkan Peninsula, which is surrounded by warm seas (Adriatic, Aegean and Black), while in the north it leans on the European continent. An additional important factor that determines the climate of Serbia is the relief. It can be roughly said that Serbia has a continental climate in the north, a temperate continental climate in the south, and a mountainous climate in the high mountains. Winters in Serbia are short, cold and snowy, while summers are warm. The coldest month is January, while the warmest is July. The lowest temperature recorded in Serbia was -39.5 ° C (January 13, 1985 in the settlement of Karajukića Bunari in Pešter), and the highest was 44.9 ° C (July 24, 2007 in Smederevska Palanka). The average annual temperature in Serbia is: 10.9 ° C (areas below 300 m above sea level), 10 ° C (300-500 m), 6 ° C (1000-1500 m), 3 ° C (above 1500 m). The average annual rainfall is 896 mm. The highest rains are in June and May, while the driest are February and October.

Flora and fauna

Biogeographically, there are two zonal vegetations (ie, two biomes) on the territory of Serbia - most of the surface belongs to the biome of deciduous and mixed forests of temperate regions, while the areas above the upper forest border belong to the biome tundra (alpine tundra). There are four ecoregions within the forest biome: Balkan mixed forests (occupying most of the territory south of the Sava and Danube), Pannonian mixed forests (occupying the Pannonian plain with peripheral areas), Dinaric mixed forests (small area in southwestern Serbia) and Rhodope mountain forests. mixed forests (small area in the southeastern part of Serbia). Within the tundra biome, high mountain herbaceous vegetation of alpine meadows and rocks has been developed. In addition to zonal vegetation, there are other forms of vegetation, depending on local conditions, e.g. lowland meadows, peat bogs, steppe fragments. Pančić's spruce is endemic to the Podrinje area, western Serbia and eastern Srpska (near Visegrad). It was named after the Serbian botanist Josif Pančić, who discovered it on the Tara mountain in 1875, near the villages of Zaovine and Rastište. Pančić spruce is a thin, slender, up to 50 m high coniferous tree.


In the past, Šumadija bore that name for a reason, because of the dense and impassable forests that were in it. Rarely would anyone understand the complaints of travelers from the first half of the 19th century that they made their way through the extremely dense and impassable forests of the Principality of Serbia with great difficulty. Those complaints were justified, and the ancestors of the Serbs are responsible for allowing the destruction of forests. The situation in the area is not better either. Serbia has 2,000,000 hectares of forests and they produce about 8,000,000 tons of oxygen a year. In Serbia, 4,000,000 tons of firewood are burned annually, which means that Serbia's contribution to the world balance of carbon dioxide is about 6,000,000 tons per year. There are many different types of forests in the Balkans. If it is known that about 50 different species of tall trees live in this area, and that almost every species builds its own forest in certain places, one can imagine how diverse forest ecosystems are. Larger forests in Serbia: Košutnjak, Molinska forest, Šalinački lug, Lipovička forest, Valmište, Bojčinska forest and others.

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